arrowSection 4.1 - Voting Equipment

This topic is monitored by Moritz Law Professor Daniel Tokaji. For up-to-date news and commentary on voting technology, the Help America Vote Act, and other voting equality issues, see Professor Tokaji's Equal Vote Blog.

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Summary of State HAVA Plans

This entry summarizes the 50 states’ Help America Vote Act implementation plans, in the area of voting equipment. The section labeled “current” indicates the type of equipment used at the time of the HAVA plan’s submission, while the section labeled “proposed” indicates the type of equipment to which the state planned to convert. The final section indicates the amount, either in dollars or the percentage of HAVA payments received, that the state planned to devote toward new voting equipment.

Alabama

Current: 53 counties (precinct-level tabulation optical scan); 10 (central tabulation optical scan); 3 DRE; 1 lever machine; never used punch cards

Proposed: Replace mechanical lever voting machines in Bullock county; replace or modify voting machines in Mobile, Montgomery, and DeKalb counties; replace centralized ballot counting systems in 9 counties; DRE requirement

Amount: $23,000,000 allocated

Alaska

Current: 163 precincts (hand count paper ballots); 283 (optical scan paper ballots [Accu-Vote OS 2000]); no DREs

Proposed: Continue to expand the use of the optical scan voting system in hand count precincts; DRE requirement

Amount: $4,500,000 allocated

Arizona

Current: 9 counties (punch cards); 6 counties (no info)

Proposed: Replace punch card voting systems in 9 counties; DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately 56% of funds

Arkansas

Current: 5 counties (DREs); 46 (central tabulation optical scan); 3 (precinct-level optical scan); 8 (hand count paper ballots); 13 (lever machines or punch cards)

Proposed: Replace lever machines or punch card systems with DREs; replace all systems with DRE if federal funding sufficient

Amount: $12,000,000-20,000,000 estimated, depending on federal funds

California

Current: 3 categories of systems: optical scan, DRE/touchscreen, punch card

Proposed: Replace punch card voting systems; DRE requirement; consider decertifying paper-based systems

Amount: Funds from HAVA as well as up to $200,000,000 in general obligation bonds authorized by the state; funds to be allocated by Secretary of State

Colorado

Current: Systems: paper ballots, central count optical scan, precinct count optical scan, punch card; only 1 county continues to utilize punch cards, but will probably opt for another voting system

Proposed: Already meets/will meet requirements; DRE requirement

Amount: $10,100,000 allocated

Connecticut

Current: 3 municipalities (optical scan); 166 (lever machines)

Proposed: Actively considering upgrading lever machines; replacement of all lever machines delayed by insufficient federal funding; DRE requirement

Amount: $20,500,000 estimated

Delaware

Current: DREs [ELECTronic 1242 (model 6T)]

Proposed: Replaced punch card and lever machine in 1996 with DREs; DRE requirement (DREs that meet accessibility requirement)

Amount: $5,700,000 estimated

Florida

Current: Already replaced punch cards, lever machines, paper ballots, and central count optical scan systems with precinct tabulated Marksense voting systems or DREs; 15 counties (DREs); 52 (precinct level optical scan)

Proposed: DRE requirement

Amount: $11,740,000 from Sec. 102 for punch-card buyouts ($24 million was spent by state), $11,600,000 expected to be spent on DREs

Georgia

Current: 159 counties (DREs [Diebold])

Proposed: Meets all requirements, including DRE requirement

Amount: Funds already expended, $53,900,000, to replace voting systems

Hawaii

Current: All precincts use precinct level optical scan [ES&S Model 100])

Proposed: DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately 8,000,000 allocated

Idaho

Current: 16 counties (paper ballot); 14 (optical scan); 14 (punch card)

Proposed: Provide excess funds on optional grant program to upgrade systems; DRE requirement

Amount: No info

Illinois

Current: 90 counties (punch card); 2 (precinct-level punch card [PBC 2100]); 10 (precinct level optical scan [Accu-Vote]); 3 (precinct level optical scan [Optical Scan M100]); 3 (Marksense Optech IV-C); 2 (Marksense Optech III-PE)

Proposed: Replace punch cards; voter education if counties decide to retain central count systems; DRE requirement

Amount: $42,000,000 allocated

Indiana

Current: 32 counties (punch card and lever machine); 60 counties (other systems)

Proposed: Replace punch cards and lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: Will set aside $39,200,000 to reimburse counties

Iowa

Current: 6 counties (lever machines); 1 (paper ballots); 59 (central count optical scan); 18 (precinct count optical scan); 15 (DRE)

Proposed: Replace lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: $42,000,000 estimated

Kansas

Current: 81 counties (optical scan); 21 (hand count paper ballots); 3 (DRE); punch card and lever machines are not used

Proposed: Voter education to make paper ballot and central count optical scan systems compliant; DRE requirement

Amount: No info

Kentucky

Current: 96 counties (ELECTronic 1242 DRE); 17 (MicroVote MV-464 DRE); 1 (ACCU-VOTE ES Optical Scan Tabulation); 1 (lever machines); 5 (mechanical lever machines and MicroVote MV-464)

Proposed: Replace lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately $18,200,000 estimated

Louisiana

Current: 50 parishes (AVM-POM lever machines); 14 (electronic voting machines [AVC Advantage and iVotronic])

Proposed: Replace lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: Estimated 91.8% of federal funds received

Maine

Current: 394 municipalities (hand counted paper ballots); 109 municipalities (precinct level optical scan ballots [Accu-Vote ES-2000 (36 municipalities)]; [Optech IIIP (47 municipalities)]; [Optech IIIP Eagle (24 municipalities)]; [ES&S Model 100 (2 municipalities)])

Proposed: Modify current machines; DRE requirement

Amount: Estimated $5,000,000-10,000,000

Maryland

Current: 4 systems: Optical Scan (ES&S Optech III-P Eagle and Diebold Model ES-2000) and DRE (Diebold AccuVote TS and Sequoia AVC Advantage)

Proposed: In the process of meeting requirements; DRE requirement

Amount: $57,500,000 allocated

Massachusetts

Current: 392 precincts (lever machines); 11 (Datavote systems); 1665 (optical scan [Accu-Vote (1042 precincts), Optech (176 precincts), and Optech Eagle (447 precincts)]); 90 (paper ballots)

Proposed: Replace lever machines and Datavote machines; DRE requirement

Amount: 100% of Sec. 102 monies & 15% of Title II monies

Michigan

Current: 445 precincts (lever machines); 98 (paper ballots); 866 (central count punch cards); the rest of the 5,405 total precincts use either DRE or precinct level optical scan

Proposed: Replace punch cards and lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: Estimated $55,000,000 to be allocated

Minnesota

Current: 7 counties (hand count paper ballots); 24 (central count optical scan); 14 (precinct tabulator optical scan); 42 (mixed systems) TABLE AVAILABLE ON SPECIFIC SYSTEMS

Proposed: Implement a uniform, statewide voting system with locally-owned, precinct-based, optical scan equipment; DRE requirement

Amount: No info

Mississippi

Current: 8 jurisdictions (lever systems); 11 (punch cards); 1 (Opscan [combination OMR and punch card]); 8 (precinct level optical mark reader systems);51 (central optical mark reader systems); 1 (DRE); 2 (Shouptronic systems)

Proposed: Replace all non-DRE voting devices with DREs, if full federal funding

Amount: Plans to spend approximately $15,000,000 in federal funds

Missouri

Current: 9 counties (hand count paper ballots); 37 (punch cards); 70 (optical scan)

Proposed: Replace punch cards; DRE requirement

Amount: Unclear

Montana

Current: 6 counties (punch cards); 45 (optical scan); 5 (paper ballots)

Proposed: Replace punch cards in 5 counties (1 county already replaced their system after the 2000 election); DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately $3,100,000 allocated

Nebraska

Current: Two methods: hand counting of paper ballots and central optical scan system for paper ballots (no breakdown by counties)

Proposed: DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately $5,300,000 allocated

Nevada

Current: 7 counties (punch cards); 9 (optical scan); 1 (DRE)

Proposed: Replace all punch cards and optical scan systems with DREs, if sufficient funding; DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately $8,500,000 allocated

New Hampshire

Current: 162 polling places (optical scan [Optech IIIP (39); Accuvote OS ES-2000 (123)]); 147 (hand count paper ballots)

Proposed: Replaced punch cards in 1986; DRE requirement

Amount: 25% of available funds to be allocated

New Jersey

Current: 7 counties (lever machines); 14 (no info)

Proposed: Replace lever machines and upgrade other systems; 2 counties replaced punch cards in 2001; DRE requirement

Amount: To be determined, estimated $39,000,000 for complete upgrade

New Mexico

Current: DRE and optical scan (no info on number of counties)

Proposed: Already replaced punch card and lever machines; begin replacing older systems; DRE requirement

Amount: Initial $5,000,000 in Title II funds to be used for DRE purchases

New York

Current: All 62 counties (lever machines)

Proposed: Replace lever machines (19,843 systems); DRE requirement

Amount: $140,000,000 total budgeted

North Carolina

Current: 8 counties (punch card); 5 (lever machines)

Proposed: Replace punch card and lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: $37,200,000 allocated

North Dakota

Current: 44 counties (optical scan); 8 (hand count paper ballots); 1 (punch card)

Proposed: Replace punch card system in Williams county; DRE requirement

Amount: Estimated $5,000,000-6,000,000

Ohio

Current: 69 counties (punch cards); 2 (lever machines); 6 (electronic voting devices); 11 (optical scan)

Proposed: Replace punch card and lever machines, if sufficient funding; DRE requirement

Amount: Estimated $136,000,000

Oklahoma

Current: 4 counties (optical scan); No info on other counties

Proposed: Upgrade current systems; replace all precinct level and central count devices in largest counties; DRE requirement

Amount: $33,400,000 allocated

Oregon

Current: 3 counties (punch cards); 33 (optical scan)

Proposed: Replace punch cards; DRE requirement; additional DREs, if funding available

Amount: $3,550,000 allocated

Pennsylvania

Current: 5 counties (paper ballots); 24 (lever machines); 11 (punch cards); 24 (central count optical scan); 8 (DRE)

Proposed: Replace punch cards and lever machines; upgrade other systems; encourage DREs or, if not DREs, then encourage precinct level optical scan; DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately $23,000,000 under Sec. 102 funds. State will fully reimburse DRE purchases, part for other machines.

Rhode Island

Current: All 39 cities (precinct level optical scan [Optech III-PE])

Proposed: Replaced entire system in 1998 with optical scan; 2 DREs per precinct

Amount: Approximately $7,000,000 allocated for DRE purchases.

South Carolina

Current: 24 counties (DRE); 10 (punch cards); 12 (MarkSense optical scan system)

Proposed: Replace all machines with a statewide uniform electronic voting system (no info on which system); DRE requirement

Amount: $36,600,000 allocated

South Dakota

Current: Precinct level and central count optical scan; hand count paper ballots, punch cards (no info on number of counties)

Proposed: Utilize precinct level and central count optical scan ballots, hand count paper ballots, and DREs; DRE requirement

Amount: Approximately $7,700,000 allocated

Tennessee

Current: 41 counties (DREs [Electronic Danaher or Microvote]); 11 (optical scan [ESS Central Count and ESS Precinct Count]); 43 (punch cards or lever machines)

Proposed: Replace punch cards and lever machines; probably upgrade from central count to precinct level optical scan systems; DRE requirement

Amount: $19,500,000 allocated

Texas

Current: 90 counties (hand count paper ballot); 150 (optical scan); 14 (punch cards); 3 (lever machines); 4 (DRE)

Proposed: Replace punch cards and lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: $31,800,000 allocated

Utah

Current: 23 counties (punch cards); 2 (optical scan); 4 (hand count paper ballots)

Proposed: Replace punch cards with DREs; DRE requirement

Amount: $20,500,000 allocated

Vermont

Current: 184 municipalities (hand count paper ballots); 62 (optical scan)

Proposed: Propose one type of optical scan system; towns will be permitted to continue use of hand count paper ballot; DRE requirement

Amount: $6,650,000 allocated

Virginia

Current: 28 precincts (hand count paper ballots); 493 (optical scan); 1065 (lever machines); 275 (punch cards); 416 (DRE)

Proposed: Replace punch cards and lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: $33,100,000 allocated

Washington

Current: 16 counties (punch cards); 23 (optical scan); 1 (mixed [optical scan and DRE])

Proposed: Replace punch cards; DRE requirement; note: WA encourages absentee voting/voting by mail

Amount: $15,700,000 allocated

West Virginia

Current: 10 counties (hand count paper ballots); 3 (lever machines); 12 (punch cards); 29 (optical scan); 1 (DRE)

Proposed: Replace punch cards and lever machines; DRE requirement

Amount: Estimated $16,500,000 allocated

Wisconsin

Current: 87% of voters (optical scan); 10% (hand count paper ballots); 3% (lever machines); NOTE: also mentions that 3 counties used punch cards in 2000 election

Proposed: Develop voter education for central count optical scan counties and paper ballots; replace lever machines; reimburse for replacement of punch cards; DRE requirement

Amount: $16,400,000 allocated

Wyoming

Current: 3 counties (lever machines); 5 (punch cards); 6 (central count optical scan); 8 (precinct level optical scan); 1 (DRE)

Proposed: Replace punch cards, central count optical scan systems, lever machines, and the Guardian Electronic 1242 DRE system; DRE requirement

Amount: No info

D.C.

Current: 142 precincts (Optical scan voting systems [Optech Eagle P III])

Proposed: Meets requirements; DRE requirement will be met by 2004 [Sequoia Edge DRE]

Amount: $1,700,000 allocated

Puerto Rico

Current: All voters use hand count paper ballots

Proposed: Probably replace the current system, but no decision

Amount: No info

Sources of Information